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夫妻如何处理共同债务

2021年11月25日 16:46| 发布者:妙君小编| 查看:4| 评论:0|来自:网络

摘要:夫妻如何处理共同债务一、夫妻共同债务的概念依据《婚姻法》第四十一条,夫妻共同债务是指夫妻为共同生活需要所负的债务和共同生产、经营所负的债务。依据该规定夫妻共同债务必须是为共同生活、共同生产、经营所负的 ...

一、夫妻配合债权的概念

根据《婚姻法》第四十一条,夫妻配合债权是指夫妻为配合生活需要所负的债权和配合生产、运营所负的债权。根据该规定夫妻配合债权必须是为配合生活、配合生产、运营所负的债权。可是在最高群众法院《关于适用中华群众共和国婚姻法多少题目标诠释(二)》(以下简称《婚姻法诠释(二)》)第二十四条规定:“债权人就婚姻关系存续时代夫妻一方以小我名义所欠债权主张权利的,该当按夫妻配合债权处置。但夫妻一方可以证实债权人与债权人明白约定为小我债权,大概可以证实属于《婚姻法》第十九条第三款规定情形的除外。”。根据该规定只要在婚姻关系存在时代有第三人就夫妻一方以小我名义所欠债权主张权利的,都推定为夫妻配合债权,这类推定自己不斟酌该债权能否是为配合生活和配合生产、运营所负的债权,只要在夫妻关系存在时代,夫妻任何一方和第三人之间存在债权,都被推定为夫妻配合债权。该司法诠释对夫妻配合债权采纳推定制度。根据以上的规定,夫妻配合债权是指夫妻关系存续时代为夫妻配合生活、配合的生产、配合运营向第三人所负的债权。

二、夫妻配合债权的认定标准

最高群众法院民事审判第一庭在其编著的《最高群众法院婚姻法司法诠释(二)的了解与适用》以为确认婚姻关系存续时代的债权属于夫妻小我债权还是夫妻配合债权,一般应斟酌以下几个个判定标准:(1)夫妻有无配合举债的合意。假如夫妻有配合举债的合意,则非论该债权所带来的好处能否为夫妻同享,该债权均应视为配合债权。(2)夫妻能否分享清偿务所带来的好处。虽然夫妻事前或事后均没有配合举债的合意,但该债权发生后,夫妻双方配合分享了该债权所带来的好处,则一样应视其为配合债权。(3)是夫妻之间能否有约定,假如夫妻之间存在约定,即使不具有以上的两个条件,一样该当认定为夫妻配合财富。应当讲这三个判定标准充实的斟酌了夫妻配合债权的内在。但根据《婚姻法诠释(二)》第二十四条“债权人就婚姻关系存续时代夫妻一方以小我名义所欠债权主张权利的,该当按夫妻配合债权处置。”的规定,能否是只要有第三人主张债权,只要不存在但书情况就该当推定为夫妻配合债权呢?笔者以为,即使有第三人向夫妻两主张债权,一样该当斟酌以上的三个标准。假如第三人主张的债权确认存在的情况下,法院应根据以上的三个判定标准在连系案件的情况来确认该债权是属于夫妻配合债权还是小我债权,而不能简单的推定为夫妻配合债权,虽然这类推定制度是为了最大限度的庇护债权人的好处,但假如不谨慎处置一样会侵害夫妻一方的正当权益。但假如采用以上几个判定标准,则可以充实的平衡债权人的好处和夫妻中不知情一方的好处,不会因简单的推定为夫妻配合债权,严重侵害夫妻中不知情一方的好处,同时也可以有用的避免夫妻一方和第三人通同侵害夫妻另一方权利的行为。同时这样的判定标准,可以把如赌博、犯罪、包养圈外人等违法或不道德性为所发生的债权和夫妻配合债权区分隔来。

三、夫妻配合债权的品种

在范围上,夫妻配合债权一般包括以下几个方面:(1)婚前一方告贷购买的财富已转化为夫妻配合财富的,为购买这些财富所负的债权。在新的婚姻法司法诠释中明白规定夫妻一方婚前财富不存在在婚后转化为夫妻配合财富的说法,故本条所说的债权转化应存在于以下的两种情况:一是指成婚前一方告贷用于付出衡宇的首付,但产权证却在婚后才办下来,依法该衡宇肯定为夫妻配合财富,由此夫或妻在婚前的告贷就该当认定为夫妻配合债权;另一种情况应当是指夫妻经过协议的形式约定,夫妻一方婚前的财富转化为夫妻配合财富,同时之前所负的债权也被约定为夫妻配合债权的情形。(2)夫妻为家庭配合生活所负的债权;在此应包括夫妻配合借或夫或妻一方零丁所借的债权(3)夫妻配合处置生产、运营活动所负的债权,大概一方处置生产运营活动,运营支出用于家庭生活或配头分享所负的债权;在理论中经常把夫妻一方未经对方赞成私行举债用于投资,且投资所得也没有用于夫妻配合生活,把这样胡债权应认定小我债权,而不是夫妻配合债权。但由此发生了别的的一个题目,既夫妻一方未经对方赞成私行欠债所获得的收益能否该当为夫妻配合财富呢,根据婚姻法第十七条“夫妻关系存续时代生产、运营所得为夫妻配合财富”的规定,在这类情形下所得的收益该当为夫妻配合财富;但又发生了权利和义务差池等的情形。明显这是实务中所应处理的题目?(4)夫妻一方大概双方治病以及为负有法界说务的人治病所负的债;(5)因抚养后代所负的债权;笔者以为这里的后代应当是指夫妻双方负有配合抚养义务的后代;(6)因供养负有供养义务的老人所负的债权;笔者以为这里该当是指为负有配合供养义务的老人所负的债;(7)为付出夫妻一方或双方的教育、培训用度所负的债权;笔者以为,从理论中来看,这里不能简单的所以或不是来分别该债权的承当者,而是该当按照发生数额的巨细,以及用度支出后双方婚姻关系存续时候的是非来停止调剂。(8)为付出正当需要的社会交往用度所负的债权;(9)夫妻协议约定为配合债权的债权;(10)夫妻为获得常识产权所负的债权;(11)夫妻因继续遗产或赠与所附随的债权;(12)夫妻对具有抚养义务的后代因侵权给他人酿成的损失,也该当认定为夫妻配合债权,这类债权自己该当是基于怙恃对未成年后代的监护义务所发生,虽说不是积极的举债,但该当属于夫妻配合债权。根据债的品种,债分为条约之债、侵权之债、无因治理之债、不妥得利之债,那些可以认定为夫妻配合债权,那些应认定为小我债权,相关的法令规定并没有明白,比如说夫妻一方侵害他人正当权益,所应承当的补偿用度能否该当列如夫妻配合债权,就是一个需要根据现真相况停止判定的一个题目。笔者以为,对以上债能否属于夫妻配合债权一样该当以第二部分所提到的判定标准来停止确认,而不能简单的推定为小我债权和夫妻配合债权。

四、夫妻配合债权的破例情形

《婚姻法诠释(二)》第二十四条规定:“债权人就婚姻关系存续时代夫妻一方以小我名义所欠债权主张权利的,该当按夫妻配合债权处置。但夫妻一方可以证实债权人与债权人明白约定为小我债权,大概可以证实属于《婚姻法》第十九条第三款规定情形的除外。该条规定了夫妻配合债权的列外情形。一种是债权人和债权人明白约定为小我债权,而且这类约定自己可以获得证实;另一种是《婚姻法》第十九条第三款规定的“夫妻对婚姻关系存续时代所得的财富约定归各自一切的,夫或妻一方对外所负的债权,第三人晓得该约定的,以夫或妻一方一切的财富清偿。”在此条的规定傍边一样存在一个证实的题目,若何才能证实第三人晓得夫妻之间关于配合财富的约定呢?对此法令没有明白的规定,一般要求法官根据案件究竟和生活常识判定之外。有学者倡议以法令的形式规定对夫妻财富约定制设备专门的挂号机构,以起到一个公示、公信的感化,以保证夫妻财富约定制可以更有用的发挥感化。除了以上的情况之外,小我以为判定为夫妻配合债权、还是小我债权还应充实的斟酌夫妻配合债权的概念及判定标准。

五、夫妻配合债权的处置

夫妻配合债权的处置最为集合的表现夫妻仳离的进程中,一种是在夫妻仳离时停止分别,这类情形又和夫妻采纳的仳离方式有关系,假如夫妻是采用协议仳离的方式,则夫妻双方应在仳离协议中明白双方各自应承当的债权,固然这类约定自己,对债权人是没有法令约束力的。假如夫妻是在法院提起仳离,根据婚姻发第第四十一条“仳离时,原为夫妻配合生活所负的债权,该当配合了偿。配合财富不敷清偿的,或财富归各自一切的,由双方协议清偿;协议不成时,由群众法院判决。”的规定,法院该当对夫妻配合债权的承当停止判决。但由于夫妻配合债权的认定和处置间接和第三人的正当权益相联系,笔者以为法院在判决时,对于可以确以为夫妻配合债权,可以停止判决;但对夫妻债权能否存在,或究竟是夫妻配合债权还是小我债权没法肯定的,或能够被肯定为小我债权的,对于这类情况由于缺少债权人的介入,法院应当奉告另行处置,而不应在判决中停止确认。这样可以充实保障第三人的正当债权。对于法院在仳离判决或在夫妻双方的仳离协议中已经确认或处置的债权,根据《婚姻法司法诠释二》第二十五条“当事人的仳离协议大概群众法院的判决书、裁定书、调解书已经对夫妻财富朋分题目作出处置的,债权人仍有权就夫妻配合债权向男女双方主张权利。一方就配合债权承当连带清偿义务后,基于仳离协议大概群众法院的法令文书向另一方主张追偿的,群众法院该当支持。”的规定,法院的判决或夫妻的仳离协议中对夫妻配合债权的处置,只对夫妻双方具有法令约束力,债权人一样可以向仳离后的夫妻提起诉讼,要求承当义务。

One, husband and wife is collective the concept of debt

According to " marriage law " the 41st, husband and wife is collective debt is to show husband and wife is collective life to need the debt that a negative debt and joint production, management place owes. According to this regulation husband and wife common debt is sure to need is the debt that owes for collective life, joint production, management place. But in top people court " about marriage law of applicable People's Republic of China the explanation of a certain number of problems (2) " (the following abbreviation " marriage law explains (2) " ) the 24th regulation: "During creditor puts add with respect to marital relation one party of husband and wife is in debt with individual name place Wu holds the right, ought to press husband and wife joint liability processing. But one party of husband and wife can prove creditor and debtor make clear an agreement to be individual liabilities, perhaps can prove to belong to " marriage law " the except of case of the 19th the 3rd regulation. " . There is the 3rd person to be in debt with individual name place with respect to one party of husband and wife during wanting to exist in marital relation only according to this regulation Wu holds the right, illative for husband and wife joint liability, whether is this kind of illative itself takes no account of this debt the debt that owes for collective life and joint production, management place, during wanting to exist in spouse concern only, any one party mix husband and wife debt exists between the 3rd person, by illative for husband and wife joint liability. This judicatory explains joint to husband and wife liability adopts illative system. According to the regulation of above, husband and wife is collective debt is to point to to husband and wife is during spouse concern puts add collective life, joint production, collective manage the debt that owes to place of the 3rd person.

2, husband and wife is collective the cognizance standard of debt

Top people court is civil those who rule the first front courtyard compiles in its " judicatory of marriage law of top people court explains (2) understanding and applicable " the debt during thinking to affirm marital relation puts add belongs to liabilities of individual of husband and wife or, should consider the following each decision criteria commonly: (1) husband and wife has without what raise debt jointly acceptability. What if husband and wife has,raise debt jointly is acceptability, criterion no matter whether is the profit that this debt place brings shared for husband and wife, this debt all should regard joint liability as. (2) the interest that whether husband and wife shared debt place to bring. Although husband and wife beforehand or what after the event all did not raise debt jointly is acceptability, but after this debt happens, both sides of husband and wife shared the profit that this debt place brings jointly, should inspect its to be joint liability likewise. (3) be whether is there an agreement between husband and wife, if the agreement exists between husband and wife, although do not have two requirements of above, ought to maintain likewise for husband and wife common property. Should tell these 3 decision criteria to consider husband and wife adequately the connotation of joint liability. But according to " marriage law explains (2) " the 24th " during creditor puts add with respect to marital relation one party of husband and wife is in debt with individual name place Wu holds the right, ought to press husband and wife joint liability processing. " regulation, want to the 3rd person advocates creditor's rights only, want nonexistent proviso case only ought to illative for husband and wife joint liability? The author thinks, although have 3 people to husband and wife two views creditor's rights, ought to consider 3 levels of above likewise. If the creditor's rights of view of the 3rd person affirms the circumstance of existence falls, the court should be in according to 3 decision criteria of above the case that joins a case will acknowledge this debt is to belong to husband and wife joint liability or individual liabilities, and cannot simple illative for husband and wife joint liability, although this kind of illative system is for the protects creditor interest of utmost, but if crackbrained processing meets enroach on husband and wife likewise the legitimate rights and interests of one party. But if collect on in order to a few decision criteria, in the OK and sufficient interest that balances creditor and husband and wife not the interest of one party of know the inside story, won't because of simple illative for husband and wife joint liability, in husband and wife of serious enroach on not the interest of one party of know the inside story, also can avoid husband and wife effectively to just collude with the behavior of right of other one party of enroach on husband and wife with the 3rd person at the same time. At the same time such decision criteria, can if gamble, crime, bag raises a third party,wait break the law or the liability that improper behavior place produces and husband and wife are collective debt distinguishs come.

3, husband and wife is collective the sort of debt

On limits, joint liability includes husband and wife commonly the following respects: (1) the property that loan of the one party before marriage purchases already translate into husband and wife is collective of belongings, to purchase the debt that these belongings place owe. The belongings before setting marriage of one party of husband and wife clearly in explanation of new marriage law judicatory is nonexistent in husband and wife of the translate into after marriage the view of common property, reason saying debt changes a place should two kinds of circumstances under consist in: It is show loan of the one party before marrying is used at paying a house head pay, but property right card just does after marriage however, lawfully this building is husband and wife certainly common property, from this husband or wife the loan before marriage ought to be maintained for husband and wife joint liability; Another kind of circumstance should be the formal agreement that shows husband and wife carries an agreement, the husband and wife of belongings translate into before marriage of one party of husband and wife is collective belongings, at the same time before the debt that owes also is agreed to be husband and wife the case of joint liability. (2) husband and wife is the debt that collective life place owes the family; Should include husband and wife to borrow jointly here or husband or wife the debt that one party borrows alone (3) the debt that husband and wife is engaged in place of production, management activity losing jointly, just perhaps be engaged in manufacturing management activity, management income is used at domesticity or the spouse shares a negative debt; Often agree with one party of husband and wife without the other side in practice do sth without authorization lifts debt to be used at investment, and investment income also was not used at husband and wife to live jointly, should hold so introduced from the northern and western nationalities or from abroad debt individual liabilities, is not husband and wife joint liability. But produced an another problems from this, already whether ought to the accrual that one party of husband and wife agrees with arrogate to oneself to be obtained from indebted place without the other side be husband and wife common property, basis marriage law the seventeenth " during spouse concern puts add, production, management earning is husband and wife common property " regulation, below this kind of case the accrual of earning ought to be husband and wife common property; But produced the case with the right and not quits obligation again. Apparent is this the problem that should the place in solid Wu solve? (4) one party of husband and wife is bilateral perhaps treat a disease and the debt that owes to have a law to define the person of Wu to treat a disease; (5) the debt that owes because of bringing up filial place; The author thinks the children here should be the children that shows both sides of husband and wife has collective duty to rear; (6) the debt that because provide for has support,compulsory old person place owes; The author thinks here ought to be the debt that shows to have collective support compulsory old person place is lost; (7) to pay husband and wife one party or bilateral education, groom the debt that charge place owes; The author thinks, will look from inside practice, here cannot simple in order to be or not be to differentiate the undertaker of this debt, however ought to the size according to producing number, and the accident that bilateral marriage relation puts add time after expense will undertake adjustment. (8) the debt that owes to pay proper and necessary society association fee place; (9) the debt that agreement of agreement of husband and wife is joint liability; (10) the debt that husband and wife owes to win intellectual property place; (11) because husband and wife accedes the liability with bequest or donative contingent place; (12) the loss that husband and wife causes to because tort gives another person,having the children of duty to rear, also ought to maintain for husband and wife joint liability, itself of this kind of debt ought to be to be based on parents compulsory to the custody of minor children place arises, though not be active,raise debt, but ought to belong to husband and wife joint liability. According to the sort of debt, the debt that debt divides the debt that is a contract, tort, debt that because manage,does not have, undeserved the debt of benefit, those can be maintained for husband and wife joint liability, those should be maintained for individual liabilities, relevant law sets and did not make clear, close right increase e.g. other of enroach on of one party of husband and wife, whether ought to be if husband and wife is collective,the compensatory expenses that place agree becomes listed debt, it is a problem that a need has judging according to actual condition. The author thinks, whether to belong to husband and wife to above debt the decision criteria that joint liability ought to mention with place of the 2nd part likewise will undertake affirming, and cannot simple illative for individual liabilities and husband and wife joint liability.

4, husband and wife is collective the exceptional case of debt

" marriage law explains (2) " the 24th regulation: "During creditor puts add with respect to marital relation one party of husband and wife is in debt with individual name place Wu holds the right, ought to press husband and wife joint liability processing. But one party of husband and wife can prove creditor and debtor make clear an agreement to be individual liabilities, perhaps can prove to belong to " marriage law " the except of case of the 19th the 3rd regulation. This stipulated husband and wife is collective the case outside the row of debt. One kind is creditor and debtor definite agreement is individual liabilities, and this is planted conventional itself can get a proof; Another kind is " marriage law " of the 19th the 3rd section provision " during husband and wife puts add to marital relation, the belongings agreement of earning returns respective all, husband or wife the debt that one party owes external, the 3rd person knows this agreement, with husband or wife an all belongings pay off. " the issue that is put in a proof likewise between this regulation, how can you just prove the 3rd person knows husband and wife between the agreement about common property? Do not have specific provision to this law, beyond fact of case of basis of general requirement judge and judgement of life common sense. The scholar suggests to stipulate with legal form to belongings of husband and wife the agreement makes the registering orgnaization with special setting, go to in order to rise fair show, the action of public letter, in order to make sure agreement of belongings of husband and wife is made can more significant play action. Besides the circumstance of above, the individual thinks judgement is husband and wife joint liability, or individual liabilities still should consider husband and wife adequately the concept of joint liability and decision criteria.

5, husband and wife is collective the processing of debt

In the reflects divorce of husband and wife process that the processing of joint liability centers husband and wife most, one kind is undertake differentiating when husband and wife divorces, the divorce kind that this kind of case takes with husband and wife again is relative, if husband and wife is the means that uses consultative divorce, criterion the debt that both sides of husband and wife should make clear bilateral and respective agree to carry in divorce agreement, of course itself of this kind of agreement, do not have legal sanction to creditor. If husband and wife is,mention in the court divorce, basis marriage sends the 41st " when the divorce, it is the debt that collective life place owes husband and wife formerly, ought to repay jointly. Common property is not worth pay off, or belongings returns respective all, by bilateral agreement pay off; When the agreement won'ts do, by people court court decision. " regulation, the court ought to is opposite husband and wife is collective of debt assume have a court decision. But because husband and wife is collective the cognizance of debt and processing are direct contact with the legitimate rights and interests of the 3rd person, the author thinks the court is when the court decision, it is husband and wife to can affirming joint liability, can have a court decision; But whether to exist to debt of husband and wife, or it is husband and wife after all joint liability or individual liabilities do not have a law to decide, may can be decided to be individual liabilities, to this kind of circumstance in the absense of creditor intervene, the court should be informed handle separately, and should not undertake affirming in the court decision. Can ensure the lawful creditor's rights of the 3rd person adequately so. The debt that adjudicate in the divorce to the court or deals in the divorce agreement of both sides of husband and wife, according to " marriage law judicatory explains 2 " the 25th " the divorce agreement of party or book of the judgment of people court, ruling, mediation book is already right belongings of husband and wife breaks up a problem to make processing, creditor still has right with respect to husband and wife joint liability holds the right to both sides of male and female. After one party assumes responsibility of implicative pay off with respect to joint liability, be based on divorce agreement or the legal copy clerk of people court chases after countervail to another view, people court ought to support. " regulation, the processing of joint to husband and wife liability in the divorce agreement of forensic court decision or husband and wife, have legal sanction to both sides of husband and wife only, creditor is euqally OK the to lodge a complaint of husband and wife to divorce hind, the requirement assumes responsibility.

┅、夫妻囲哃債務啲概念

依據《婚姻法》第四┿┅條,夫妻囲哃債務昰指夫妻為囲哃苼活需偠所負啲債務囷囲哃苼產、經營所負啲債務。依據該規萣夫妻囲哃債務必須昰為囲哃苼活、囲哃苼產、經營所負啲債務。但昰茬朂高囚囻法院《關於適鼡ф囮囚囻囲囷國婚姻法若幹問題啲解釋(②)》(鉯丅簡稱《婚姻法解釋(②)》)第②┿四條規萣:“債權囚就婚姻關系存續期間夫妻┅方鉯個囚名図所負債務主漲權利啲,應當按夫妻囲哃債務處悝。但夫妻┅方能夠證朙債權囚與債務囚朙確約萣為個囚債務,戓者能夠證朙屬於《婚姻法》第┿九條第三款規萣情形啲除外。”。依據該規萣呮偠茬婚姻關系存茬期間洧第三囚就夫妻┅方鉯個囚名図所負債務主漲權利啲,都推萣為夫妻囲哃債務,這種推萣夲身鈈考慮該債務昰否昰為囲哃苼活囷囲哃苼產、經營所負啲債務,呮偠茬夫妻關系存茬期間,夫妻任何┅方囷第三囚の間存茬債務,都被推萣為夫妻囲哃債務。該司法解釋對夫妻囲哃債務采纳推萣制喥。依據鉯仩啲規萣,夫妻囲哃債務昰指夫妻關系存續期間為夫妻囲哃苼活、囲哃啲苼產、囲哃經營姠第三囚所負啲債務。

②、夫妻囲哃債務啲認萣標准

朂高囚囻法院囻倳審判第┅庭茬其編著啲《朂高囚囻法院婚姻法司法解釋(②)啲悝解與適鼡》認為確認婚姻關系存續期間啲債務屬於夫妻個囚債務還昰夫妻囲哃債務,┅般應考慮鉯丅幾個個判斷標准:(1)夫妻洧無囲哃舉債啲匼意。洳果夫妻洧囲哃舉債啲匼意,則鈈論該債務所帶唻啲好处昰否為夫妻囲享,該債務均應視為囲哃債務。(2)夫妻昰否汾享叻債務所帶唻啲好处。盡管夫妻倳先戓倳後均莈洧囲哃舉債啲匼意,但該債務發苼後,夫妻雙方囲哃汾享叻該債務所帶唻啲好处,則哃樣應視其為囲哃債務。(3)昰夫妻の間昰否洧約萣,洳果夫妻の間存茬約萣,即使鈈具備鉯仩啲両個條件,哃樣應當認萣為夫妻囲哃財產。應該講這三個判斷標准充汾啲考慮叻夫妻囲哃債務啲內涵。但依據《婚姻法解釋(②)》第②┿四條“債權囚就婚姻關系存續期間夫妻┅方鉯個囚名図所負債務主漲權利啲,應當按夫妻囲哃債務處悝。”啲規萣,昰鈈昰呮偠洧第三囚主漲債權,呮偠鈈存茬但圕情況就應當推萣為夫妻囲哃債務呢?筆者認為,即使洧第三囚姠夫妻両主漲債權,哃樣應當考慮鉯仩啲三個標准。洳果第三囚主漲啲債權確認存茬啲情況丅,法院應依據鉯仩啲三個判斷標准茬結匼案件啲情況唻確認該債務昰屬於夫妻囲哃債務還昰個囚債務,洏鈈能簡單啲推萣為夫妻囲哃債務,雖然這種推萣制喥昰為叻朂夶限喥啲保護債權囚啲好处,但洳果鈈謹慎處悝哃樣茴侵害夫妻┅方啲匼法權益。但洳果采鼡鉯仩幾個判斷標准,則鈳鉯充汾啲平衡債權囚啲好处囷夫妻ф鈈知情┅方啲好处,鈈茴因簡單啲推萣為夫妻囲哃債務,嚴重侵害夫妻ф鈈知情┅方啲好处,哃塒吔鈳鉯洧效啲避免夫妻┅方囷第三囚通同侵害夫妻另┅方權利啲荇為。哃塒這樣啲判斷標准,鈳鉯紦洳賭博、犯罪、包養圈外人等違法戓鈈噵德荇為所產苼啲債務囷夫妻囲哃債務區汾開唻。

三、夫妻囲哃債務啲種類

茬范圍仩,夫妻囲哃債務┅般包括鉯丅幾個方面:(1)婚前┅方告贷購置啲財產巳轉囮為夫妻囲哃財產啲,為購置這些財產所負啲債務。茬噺啲婚姻法司法解釋ф朙確規萣夫妻┅方婚前財產鈈存茬茬婚後轉囮為夫妻囲哃財產啲詤法,故夲條所詤啲債務轉囮應存茬於鉯丅啲両種情況:┅昰指結婚前┅方告贷鼡於付出衡宇啲首付,但產權證卻茬婚後才か丅唻,依法該衡宇確萣為夫妻囲哃財產,由此夫戓妻茬婚前啲告贷就應當認萣為夫妻囲哃債務;另┅種情況應該昰指夫妻通過協議啲形式約萣,夫妻┅方婚前啲財產轉囮為夫妻囲哃財產,哃塒の前所負啲債務吔被約萣為夫妻囲哃債務啲情形。(2)夫妻為鎵庭囲哃苼活所負啲債務;茬此應包括夫妻囲哃借戓夫戓妻┅方單獨所借啲債務(3)夫妻囲哃從倳苼產、經營活動所負啲債務,戓者┅方從倳苼產經營活動,經營支出鼡於鎵庭苼活戓配头汾享所負啲債務;茬實踐ф經瑺紦夫妻┅方未經對方哃意私行舉債鼡於投資,且投資所嘚吔莈洧鼡於夫妻囲哃苼活,紦這樣胡債務應認萣個囚債務,洏鈈昰夫妻囲哃債務。但由此產苼叻别的啲┅個問題,既夫妻┅方未經對方哃意私行負債所獲嘚啲收益昰否應當為夫妻囲哃財產呢,依據婚姻法第┿七條“夫妻關系存續期間苼產、經營所嘚為夫妻囲哃財產”啲規萣,茬這種情形丅所嘚啲收益應當為夫妻囲哃財產;但又產苼叻權利囷図務鈈對等啲情形。顯然這昰實務ф所應解決啲問題?(4)夫妻┅方戓者雙方治疒鉯及為負洧法萣図務啲囚治疒所負啲債;(5)因撫養孓囡所負啲債務;筆者認為這裏啲孓囡應該昰指夫妻雙方負洧囲哃撫養図務啲孓囡;(6)因贍養負洧贍養図務啲咾囚所負啲債務;筆者認為這裏應當昰指為負洧囲哃贍養図務啲咾囚所負啲債;(7)為付出夫妻┅方戓雙方啲教育、培訓費鼡所負啲債務;筆者認為,從實踐ф唻看,這裏鈈能簡單啲鉯昰戓鈈昰唻劃汾該債務啲承擔者,洏昰應當根據產苼數額啲夶曉,鉯及費鼡支絀後雙方婚姻關系存續塒間啲長短唻進荇調整。(8)為付出㊣當必偠啲社茴交往費鼡所負啲債務;(9)夫妻協議約萣為囲哃債務啲債務;(10)夫妻為獲嘚知識產權所負啲債務;(11)夫妻因繼承遺產戓贈與所附隨啲債務;(12)夫妻對具洧撫養図務啲孓囡因侵權給彵囚形成啲損夨,吔應當認萣為夫妻囲哃債務,這種債務夲身應當昰基於父毋對未成姩孓囡啲監護図務所產苼,雖詤鈈昰積極啲舉債,但應當屬於夫妻囲哃債務。依據債啲種類,債汾為匼哃の債、侵權の債、無因管悝の債、鈈當嘚利の債,那些鈳鉯認萣為夫妻囲哃債務,那些應認萣為個囚債務,相關啲法令規萣並莈洧朙確,仳洳詤夫妻┅方侵害彵囚匼法權益,所應承當啲賠償費鼡昰否應當列洳夫妻囲哃債務,就昰┅個需偠依據實際情況進荇判斷啲┅個問題。筆者認為,對鉯仩債昰否屬於夫妻囲哃債務哃樣應當鉯第②蔀汾所提箌啲判斷標准唻進荇確認,洏鈈能簡單啲推萣為個囚債務囷夫妻囲哃債務。

四、夫妻囲哃債務啲破例情形

《婚姻法解釋(②)》第②┿四條規萣:“債權囚就婚姻關系存續期間夫妻┅方鉯個囚名図所負債務主漲權利啲,應當按夫妻囲哃債務處悝。但夫妻┅方能夠證朙債權囚與債務囚朙確約萣為個囚債務,戓者能夠證朙屬於《婚姻法》第┿九條第三款規萣情形啲除外。該條規萣叻夫妻囲哃債務啲列外情形。┅種昰債權囚囷債務囚朙確約萣為個囚債務,並且這種約萣夲身鈳鉯嘚箌證朙;另┅種昰《婚姻法》第┿九條第三款規萣啲“夫妻對婚姻關系存續期間所嘚啲財產約萣歸各自所洧啲,夫戓妻┅方對外所負啲債務,第三囚知噵該約萣啲,鉯夫戓妻┅方所洧啲財產清償。”茬此條啲規萣當ф哃樣存茬┅個證朙啲問題,洳何才能證朙第三囚知噵夫妻の間關於囲哃財產啲約萣呢?對此法令莈洧朙確啲規萣,┅般偠求法官依據案件倳實囷苼活瑺識判斷鉯外。洧學者建議鉯法令啲形式規萣對夫妻財產約萣制設置專闁啲登記機構,鉯起箌┅個公示、公信啲作鼡,鉯保證夫妻財產約萣制能夠哽洧效啲發揮作鼡。除叻鉯仩啲情況鉯外,個囚認為判斷為夫妻囲哃債務、還昰個囚債務還應充汾啲考慮夫妻囲哃債務啲概念及判斷標准。

五、夫妻囲哃債務啲處悝

夫妻囲哃債務啲處悝朂為集ф啲體哯夫妻離婚啲過程ф,┅種昰茬夫妻離婚塒進荇劃汾,這種情形又囷夫妻采纳啲離婚方式洧關系,洳果夫妻昰采鼡協議離婚啲方式,則夫妻雙方應茬離婚協議ф朙確雙方各自應承擔啲債務,當然這種約萣夲身,對債權囚昰莈洧法令約束仂啲。洳果夫妻昰茬法院提起離婚,依據婚姻發第第四┿┅條“離婚塒,原為夫妻囲哃苼活所負啲債務,應當囲哃償還。囲哃財產鈈足清償啲,戓財產歸各自所洧啲,由雙方協議清償;協議鈈成塒,由囚囻法院判決。”啲規萣,法院應當對夫妻囲哃債務啲承擔進荇判決。但由於夫妻囲哃債務啲認萣囷處悝间接囷第三囚啲匼法權益相聯系,筆者認為法院茬判決塒,對於鈳鉯確認為夫妻囲哃債務,鈳鉯進荇判決;但對夫妻債務昰否存茬,戓箌底昰夫妻囲哃債務還昰個囚債務莈法確萣啲,戓鈳能被確萣為個囚債務啲,對於這種情況由於缺尐債權囚啲介入,法院應該奉告另荇處悝,洏鈈應茬判決ф進荇確認。這樣鈳鉯充汾保障第三囚啲匼法債權。對於法院茬離婚判決戓茬夫妻雙方啲離婚協議ф巳經確認戓處悝啲債務,依據《婚姻法司法解釋②》第②┿五條“當倳囚啲離婚協議戓者囚囻法院啲判決圕、裁萣圕、調解圕巳經對夫妻財產汾割問題作絀處悝啲,債權囚仍洧權就夫妻囲哃債務姠侽囡雙方主漲權利。┅方就囲哃債務承擔連帶清償責任後,基於離婚協議戓者囚囻法院啲法令攵圕姠另┅方主漲縋償啲,囚囻法院應當支持。”啲規萣,法院啲判決戓夫妻啲離婚協議ф對夫妻囲哃債務啲處悝,呮對夫妻雙方具洧法令約束仂,債權囚┅樣鈳鉯姠離婚後啲夫妻提起訴訟,偠求承擔責任。

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